Perumalswami 2022


Year: 2022

Title: Hepatocellular carcinoma surveillance, incidence, and tumor doubling times in patients cured of hepatitis C

Country: United States

Age: Adult Only

Sex: All Sexes

Population: Multiple Groups

Care Setting: Outpatient Ambulatory and Primary Care

Clinical Setting: Other: Cancer Screening

Data Level: Single Institution

Data Type: EHR

Data Source: Local data

Conclusion: Disparities In Some Minority Groups

Health OutComes Reported: Yes

Mitigation: No

Free Text Conclusion: The likelihood of receiving a first surveillance examination was not significantly associated with race/ethnicity. Non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanics were less likely to receive 2 or 3 examinations. Blacks were more likely to develop HCC, but the difference was not statistically significant.

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) incidence and mortality vary by race/ethnicity and both are higher in Black patients than in Whites. For HCC surveillance, all cirrhotic patients are advised to undergo lifelong twice-annual abdominal imaging. We investigated factors associated with surveillance and HCC incidence in a diverse HCC risk group, cirrhotic patients recently cured of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. METHODS: In this observational cohort study, all participants (n = 357) had advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis and were cured of HCV with antiviral treatment. None had Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) 2-5 lesions prior to HCV cure. Ultrasound, computed tomography, and/or magnetic resonance imaging were used for surveillance. RESULTS: At a median follow-up of 40 months [interquartile range (IQR) = 28-48], the median percentage of time up-to-date with surveillance was 49% (IQR) = 30%-71%. The likelihood of receiving a first surveillance examination was not significantly associated with race/ethnicity, but was higher for patients with more advanced cirrhosis, for example, bilirubin [odds ratio (OR) = 3.8/mg/dL, p = 0.002], private insurance (OR = 3.4, p = 0.006), and women (OR = 2.3, p = 0.008). The likelihood of receiving two or three examinations was significantly lower for non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanics versus non-Hispanic Whites (OR = 0.39, and OR = 0.40, respectively, p < 0.005 for both) and for patients with higher platelet counts (OR = 0.99/10,000 cells/l, p = 0.01), but higher for patients with private insurance (OR = 2.8, p < 0.001). Incident HCC was associated with higher bilirubin (OR = 1.7, p = 0.02) and lower lymphocyte counts (OR = 0.16, p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to best practices, HCC surveillance was associated with sociodemographic factors (insurance status and race/ethnicity) among patients cured of HCV. Guideline-concordant surveillance is needed to address healthcare disparities.